Articles

Unfortunately, we are no longer allowed to post recent publications on our website, as most publishers now make those available for a fee. Therefore, you will find mostly older publications on this page.

The following articles are listed alphabetically by journal title and available as PDF files.


From Acupuncture in Medicine

A Review of Myofascial Pain and Fibromyalgia—Factors That Promote Their Persistence by Robert D. Gerwin. Chronic muscle pain (myalgia) is a common problem throughout the world. Seemingly simple, it is actually a difficult problem for the clinician interested in determining the aetiology of the pain, as well as in managing the pain. The two common muscle pain conditions are fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome. Fibromyalgia is a chronic, widespread muscle tenderness syndrome, associated with central sensitisation. It is often accompanied by chronic sleep disturbance and fatigue, visceral pain syndromes like irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis … read article (pdf) »


From Advance

Those Noxious Turf Wars by Jan Dommerholt, PT, DPT, MPS, DAAPM. The article “Those Noxious Nodules” (Advance, Dec. 26, 2011) contains several erroneous and misleading statements regarding dry needling and acupuncture. … read guest editorial (pdf)»

Treating the Trigger by Brian W. Ferrie. A native of the Netherlands, Jan Dommerholt, MPS, PT, earned his physical therapy degree and immigrated to the United States in 1986. Within a few years, he became intrigued by the concept of trigger point therapy. Now his entire practice revolves around it. … read interview (pdf) »


From Bases Diagnosticas, Terapeuticas y Posturales del Functionalismo Craniofacial

Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Craniomandibular Region (2006) by Jan Dommerholt. Craniomandibular disorders (CMD) are characterized by a combination of symptoms that may include pain, tenderness and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, the mouth and the occlusal contacts, the cervical spine, and the muscles of mastication … read article (pdf) »


From Current Pain and Headache Reports

An Expansion of Simons’ Integrated Hypothesis of Trigger Point Formation (Vol 8, 2004) by Robert D. Gerwin, Jan Dommerholt, and Jay P. Shah. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a myalgic condition characterized by local and referred pain that originates in a myofascial trigger point (TrP). The term myofascial TrP was coined to describe a zone of intense pain in a hardened muscle band that refers (triggers) pain distantly when stimulated … read article (pdf) »

Persistent Myalgia Following Whiplash (Vol 9, 2005) by Jan Dommerholt. Persistent myalgia following whiplash is commonly considered the result of poor psychosocial status, illness behavior, or failing coping skills. However, there is much evidence that persistent myalgia may be due to neurophysiologic mechanisms involving peripheral and central sensitization … read article (pdf) »


From Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Practitioner’s Guide to Treatment (Ch 8, 2003)

Differential Diagnosis: Myofascial Pain Syndrome by Jan Dommerholt and Tamer Issa. According to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia, a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FMS) should be made when an individual presents with widespread pain lasting longer than 3 months and tests positive for the tender point count … read chapter (pdf) »


From Headache

Referred Pain From the Trochlear Region in Tension-Type Headache: A Myofascial Trigger Point From the Superior Oblique Muscle (Vol 45, 2005) by Cesar Fernandez-de-las-Peñas, Cristina Alonso-Blanco, Maria Luz Cuadrado, Robert Gerwin, Juan A. Pareja. Tension-type headache (TTH) is a prototypical headache in which pericranial myofascial tissues can play an important role. Some authors have claimed that pain from pericranial head, neck, and/or shoulder muscles are referred to the head, and are experienced as headache. Simons et al described the referred pain patterns from different myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in these muscles, which produce pain features … read article (pdf) »

Trigger Points in the Suboccipital Muscles and Forward Head Posture in Tension-Type Headache (Vol 46, 2006) by Cesar Fernandez-de-las-Peñas, Cristina Alonso-Blanco, Maria Luz Cuadrado, Robert Gerwin, Juan A. Pareja. Headache disorders are one of the most common problems seen in medical practice. Among many types of headache disorders, tension-type headache (TTH) is the most frequent in adults. Population-based studies suggest 1-year prevalence rates of 38.3% for episodic TTH and 2.2% for chronic TTH (CTTH). In spite of its scientific interest, the pathogenesis of TTH is not clearly understood … read article (pdf) »


From Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome—1: History, Diagnostic Criteria and Etiology by Jan Dommerholt. Physical therapists and other health care providers frequently evaluate and treat patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) … read article (pdf) »

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome—2: Physical Therapy Management by Jan Dommerholt. The current article reviews the available research of physical therapy treatment interventions for patients with CRPS … there continues to be much uncertainty about the underlying mechanisms of CRPS … read article (pdf) »

Efficacy of Manipulation in Low Back Pain Treatment: The Validity of Meta-analysis Conclusions by Leon Chaitow, Jan Dommerholt, et al. A recent review has concluded that: “Initial studies have found massage to be effective for persistent back pain. Spinal manipulation has small clinical benefits that are equivalent to those of other commonly used therapies. The effectiveness of acupuncture remains unclear. All of these treatments seem to be relatively safe. Preliminary evidence suggests that massage, but not acupuncture or spinal manipulation, may reduce the costs of care after an initial course of therapy” [Cherkin et al., Ann. Int. Med. 138(11) (2003) 898]. … read article (pdf) »


From the Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy

2006 Manual Therapy Awards and Abstracts. The 2006 OPTP Award for Excellence in a Published Review of the Literature is awarded to Jan Dommerholt, Carel Bron, and Jo Franssen for their article, Myofascial Trigger Points: An Evidence-Informed Re-view … read article (pdf) »

Myofascial Trigger Points and Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Critical Review of Recent Literature by David G. Simons and Jan Dommerholt. For this special topic issue of JMMT on myofascial pain syndrome we have been able to enlist the expertise of Dr. David Simons and Jan Dommerholt to share with us their critical review of what they consider some of the more relevant recent literature on this topic … read article (pdf) »


From the Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain

Differential Diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome and Fibromyalgia (1999) by Robert D. Gerwin. This review examines diagnostic factors of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and fibromyalgia (FMS), and their differential diagnosis. … read article (pdf) »

Fibromyalgia: Time to Consider a New Taxonomy? (2000) by Jan Dommerholt. Fibromyalgia is a disorder of chronic widespread pain, accompanied by
tenderness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and psychological distress. Several
other syndromes and clinical entities have been linked … read article (pdf) »

The Management of Myofascial Pain Syndromes by Robert D. Gerwin. Management of the Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires both general measures for treatment of the structural and systemic perpetuating factors, and specific measures for the treatment of the Myofascial Trigger Point (MTrP) itself … read article (pdf) »

Myofascial Pain Syndromes—Trigger Points (series) by David G. Simons and Jan Dommerholt.

Myofascial and Visceral Pain Syndromes: Visceral-Somatic Pain Representations (2002) by Robert D. Gerwin. Visceral pain is one of the most common forms of disease-induced pain. Referred pain from viscera is likewise common, occurring in both pathologic conditions such as ureteral colic or myocardial infarction, and in nonpathologic conditions such as bowel or bladder distention … read article (pdf) »

A Standing Complaint: Inability to Sit: An Unusual Presentation of Medial Hamstring Myofascial Pain Syndrome (2001) by Robert D. Gerwin. Hamstring muscle injuries are among the most common lower extremity injuries in athletes. Pain in the posterior thigh and leg weakness are usual presenting symptoms. Less dramatic onset in nonathletes, without pain in the posterior thigh, is more often thought of as an ischial bursitis … read article (pdf) »


From Massage Today (Vol 4)

The Experiences of Learning by Cliff Korn, NCTMB Editor of Massage Today. This conference was special for many reasons—reasons important enough to share with you. The conference … dealt with what is possibly one of the most prevalent patient complaints we face as practitioners: low back and pelvic pain … read this article (pdf) »


From Pain

Interrater Reliability in Myofascial Trigger Point Examination (Vol 69, 1997) by Robert D. Gerwin, Steven Shannon, et al. The myofascial trigger point (MTrP) is the hallmark physical finding of the myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The MTrP itself is characterized by distinctive physical features that include a tender point in a taut band of muscle, a local twitch response (LTR) to mechanical stimulation, a pain referral pattern characteristic of trigger points of specific areas in each muscle, and the reproduction of the patient’s usual pain. … read article (pdf) »


From The Pain Practitioner (Vol 14)

Physical Therapy in an Interdisciplinary Pain Management Center by Jan Dommerholt. Physical therapy has been described as one of the pillars of pain management programs. Patients with chronic pain conditions are frequently referred to interdisciplinary treatment settings. Several studies support that such programs are cost-effective and assist in reducing pain, pain-related depresion and anxiety, healthcare utilization, and medication use … read this article (pdf) »


From Qi-Unity Report, AAAOM

The “Dry Needling Issue” (July 2008) by Jan Dommerholt. … One of the concerns of [Valerie] Hobbs, which is shared by the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM), relates to an increasing number of states that have approved dry needling as a modality within the scope of physical therapy practice … read this article (pdf)


Today in PT

Pressing Need: Flatten Myofascial Pain Syndrome with Manual Therapy by
Susan Birk. Considering the several million people in the U.S. who are affected by myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS), one might think there would be a fair number of treatment options. However, the fascia and its treatment continue to be something of a mystery to pain experts, healthcare professionals, and some physical therapists. … read article (pdf) »